PRETREATMENT

Riset yang dilakukan selama 20 tahun terakhir telah berhasil menurunkan biaya pembuatan etanol selulosa dari $4.00/gal menjadi $1.20 – 1.50/gal. Pretreatment menyumbang peranan utama dalam mengurangi biaya produksi dan keseluruhan performa sistem bioproses, serta memainkan peranan penting untuk mendapatkan hasil yang ekonomis (Yang & Wayman, 2007).

Beberapa pendekatan pretreatment secara fisik, kimia dan biologi telah dipelajari untuk meningkatkan kerapuhan selulosa untuk dirusak oleh enzim. Berikut ini ringkasan beberapa teknik pretreatment yang telah dikembangkan beserta referensinya.

Methods

Processes

Mechanism of changes on biomass

References

Mechanical or Physical pretreatment

  • Ball milling
  • two-rol milling
  • hammer milling
  • colloid milling
  • vibro energy milling
  • hydrothermal
  • hight pressure steaming
  • extrusion
  • expansion
  • pyrolisis
  • gamma-ray irradiation
  • electron-ray irradiation
  • microwave irradiation
  • Increase accessibility surface area and size of pores
  • decrease of the cellulose crystallinity and its degree of polymerization
  • partial hydrolysis of hemicelluloses
  • partial depolymerization of lignin

(Taherzadeh & Karimi, 2007)

Physicochemical & Chemical pretreatment

Explosion

  • steam explosion
  • ammonia fiber explosion
  • CO2 explosion
  • SO2 explosion

Alkali

  • sodium hydroxide
  • ammonia
  • ammonium sulfate
  • lime

Acid

  • sulfuric acid
  • hydrochloric acid
  • phosphoric acid
  • sulfur dioxide

Gas

  • chlorine dioxide
  • nitrogen dioxide

Oxidizing agents

  • hydrogen peroxide
  • wet oxidation
  • ozone
  • trimethylolpropane phosphite [P(OCH2)3CEt]

Cellulose solvents

  • cadoxen
  • CMCS

Solvent extraction lignin

  • ethanol-water extraction
  • benzene-water extraction
  • ethylene glycol extraction
  • butanol-water extraction
  • swelling agents
  • aquaeus glycerol
  • delignification
  • decrease of the cellulose crystallinity and its degree of polymerization
  • partial or complete hydrolysis of hemicellulose

(Taherzadeh & Karimi, 2007)

(Oleskowicz-Popiel, Lisiecki, Holm-Nielsen, Thomsen, & Thomsen, 2008)

(Oshel, Nandakumar, Urgaonkar, Hendricker, & Verkade, 2008)

(Viola, Cardinale, Santarcangelo, Villone, & Zimbardi, 2008)

(Xu, Wang, Jiang, Yang, & Ji, 2007)

(Guo, Chen, Chen, Men, & Hwang, 2008)

(Karimi, Emtiazi, & Taherzadeh, 2006)

(Thomsen, Thygesen, & Thomsen, 2008)

(Sun & Chen, 2008)

(Diena, et al., 2006)

(Saha & Cotta, Ethanol Production from Alkaline Peroxide Pretreated Enzymatically Saccharified Wheat Straw, 2006)

(Saha & Cotta, Lime pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of rice hulls to ethanol, 2008)

(Mosier, et al., 2005)

(Kabel, Bos, Zeevalking, Voragen, & Schols, 2007)

(Silverstein, Chen, Sharma-Shivappa, Boyette, & Osborne, 2007)

(Wyman, Dale, Elander, Holtzapple, Ladisch, & Lee, 2005)

(Vlasenko, Ding, Labavitch, & Shoemaker, 1997)

(Kim & Hong, 2001)

(SHIMIZU, SUDO, ONO, ISHIHARA, FUJII, & HISHIYAMA*, 1998)

Biological pretreatment

  • actinomycetes
  • fungi
  • delignification
  • reduction degree of polymerization of hemicelluloses and cellulose

(Taherzadeh & Karimi, 2007)

Combination

  • Steam pretreatment & H2SO4 impregnation
  • Microwave/alkali
  • acid & wet explosion
  • two-step steam & H2SO4 impregnation
 

(Linde, Jakobsson, Galbe, & Zacchi, 2008)

(Zhu, et al., 2005)

(Sørensen, Teller, Hilstrøm, & Ahring, 2007)

(S’oderstr’om, Pilcher, Galbe, & Zacchi, 2003)

       

Modified from (Taherzadeh & Karimi, 2007)

Bibliography

Diena, B. S., Jung, H.-J. G., Vogel, K. P., Casler, M. D., Lamb, J. F., L. I., et al. (2006). Chemical composition and response to dilute-acid pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification of alfalfa, reed canarygrass, and switchgrass. Biomass and Bioenergy 30 , 880–891.

Guo, G.-L., Chen, W.-H., Chen, W.-H., Men, L.-C., & Hwang, W.-S. (2008). Characterization of dilute acid pretreatment of silvergrass for ethanol production. Bioresource Technology 99 , 6046–6053.

Kabel, M. A., Bos, G., Zeevalking, J., Voragen, A. G., & Schols, H. A. (2007). Effect of pretreatment severity on xylan solubility and enzymatic breakdown of the remaining cellulose from wheat straw. Bioresource Technology 98 , 2034–2042.

Karimi, K., Emtiazi, G., & Taherzadeh, M. (2006). Ethanol production from dilute-acid pretreated rice straw by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 40 , 138-144.

Kim, K. H., & Hong, J. (2001). Supercritical CO2 pretreatment of lignocellulose enhances enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis. Bioresource Technology 77 , 139-144.

Linde, M., Jakobsson, E.-L., Galbe, M., & Zacchi, G. (2008). Steam pretreatment of dilute H2SO4-impregnated wheat straw and SSF with low yeast and enzyme loadings for bioethanol production. Biomass and Bioenergy 32 , 326-332.

Mosier, N., Wyman, C., Dale, B., Elander, R., Lee, Y., Holtzapple, M., et al. (2005). Features of promising technologies for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Bioresource Technology 96 , 673–686.

Oleskowicz-Popiel, P., Lisiecki, P., Holm-Nielsen, J. B., Thomsen, A. B., & Thomsen, M. H. (2008). Ethanol production from maize silage as lignocellulosic biomass in anaerobically digested and wet-oxidized manure. Bioresource Technology 99 , 5327–5334.

Oshel, R. E., Nandakumar, M. V., Urgaonkar, S., Hendricker, D. G., & Verkade, J. G. (2008). Water solubilization of DDGS via derivatization with phosphite esters. Bioresource Technology 99 , 5193–5205.

Saha, B. C., & Cotta, M. A. (2006). Ethanol Production from Alkaline Peroxide Pretreated Enzymatically Saccharified Wheat Straw. Biotechnol. Prog. 22 , 449-453.

Saha, B. C., & Cotta, M. A. (2008). Lime pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of rice hulls to ethanol. Biomass and Bioenergy , (In Press).

SHIMIZU, K., SUDO, K., ONO, H., ISHIHARA, M., FUJII, T., & HISHIYAMA*, S. (1998). INTEGRATED PROCESS FOR TOTAL UTILIZATION OF WOOD COMPONENTS BY STEAM-EXPLOSION PRETREATMENT. Biomass and Bioenergy Vol. 14, No. 3 , 195-203.

Silverstein, R., Chen, Y., Sharma-Shivappa, R., Boyette, M., & Osborne, J. (2007). A comparison of chemical pretreatment methods for improving saccharification of cotton stalks. Bioresource Technology 98 , 3000-3011.

S’oderstr’om, J., Pilcher, L., Galbe, M., & Zacchi, G. (2003). Two-step steam pretreatment of softwood by dilute H2SO4 impregnation for ethanol production. Biomass and Bioenergy 24 , 475 – 486.

Sørensen, A., Teller, P. J., Hilstrøm, T., & Ahring, B. K. (2007). Hydrolysis of Miscanthus for bioethanol production using dilute acid presoaking combined with wet explosion pre-treatment and enzymatic treatment. Bioresource Technology , (in press).

Sun, F., & Chen, H. (2008). Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw by aqueous glycerol pretreatment. Bioresource Technology 99 , 6156–6161.

Taherzadeh, M. J., & Karimi, K. (2007). Enzyme-based hydrolysis processes for ethanol from lignocellulosic materials: a review. BioResources
, 2 (4), 707-738.

Taherzadeh, M., & Karimi, K. (2007). Acid-based hydrolysis processes for ethanol from lignocellulosic materials: a review. Bioresources 2(3) , 472-499.

Thomsen, M. H., Thygesen, A., & Thomsen, A. B. (2008). Hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw at pilot plant scale using a three-step reactor system aiming at high hemicellulose recovery,high cellulose digestibility and low lignin hydrolysis. Bioresource Technology 99 , 4221–4228.

Viola, E., Cardinale, M., Santarcangelo, R., Villone, A., & Zimbardi, F. (2008). Ethanol from eel grass via steam explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis. Biomass and Bioenergy , (in Press).

Vlasenko, E., Ding, H., Labavitch, J., & Shoemaker, S. (1997). Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated rice straw. Bioresource Technology 59 , 109-119.

Wyman, C. E., Dale, B. E., Elander, R. T., Holtzapple, M., Ladisch, M. R., & Lee, Y. (2005). Coordinated development of leading biomass pretreatment technologies. Bioresource Technology 96 , 1959–1966.

Xu, Z., Wang, Q., Jiang, Z. H., Yang, X., & Ji, Y. (2007). Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated soybean straw. Biomass and Bioenergy 31 , 162-167.

Yang, B., & Wayman, C. E. (2007). Biotechnology for Cellulosic Ethanol. APBN , 555-563.

Zhu, S., Wu, Y., Yu, Z., Zhang, X., Wang, C., Yu, F., et al. (2005). Sumultaneous saccharification and fermentation of microwave/alkali pre-treated rice straw to ethanol. Biosystems Engeneering 92(2) , 229-235.

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5 responses to “PRETREATMENT

  1. saya sedang melakukan percobaan untuk hidolisa lignoselulosa dengan bahan baku bagas tebu. saya mengalami kesulitan untuk menganalisa kandungan glukosa, xylose, furfural setelah hidolisa dengan dilute acid. saya sudah coba hubungi balai besar selulosa mereka tidak bisa memberikan fasilitas analisa diatas, begitu juga LIPI bandung, mungkin saudara bisa membantu untuk menyediakan fasilitasnya, saya butuh sekali bantuannya,kalo bisa, untuk biaya dan lainnya tolong saya diberitahu. terimakasih banyak

  2. Pak, ada nggak bapak buat buku tentang bioethanol. Kalo ada mohon informasinya. Saya sepertinya butuh nih…

  3. Sedang coba dibuat. Doakan kelar. Insya Allah.

  4. Terimakasih atas info ilmu yang bermanfaat pak, saya mau tanya jika ada bahan pakan yang memiliki serat kasar 11,5% sementara proteinnya tinggi lalu diberikan ke etrnak unggas. bagaimana cara yang efisien utk menurunkan serat kasarnya?

    abu farhan

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