Category Archives: Download

Bioplastic Production from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch

Alkaline Oxidation of Cellulose from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Using Hydrogen Peroxide

PENGOMPOSAN KOTORAN KAMBING DENGAN PROMI

Statistik Kelapa Sawit Indonesia 2013-2015

Alat sederhana untuk mendaur ulang sampah botol plastik

Video YouTube ini menunjukkan bagaimana membuat sebuah alat yang sangat sederhana untuk mendaur ulang sampah botol plastik. Alat ini bisa dibuat sendiri dengan menggunakan pisau dari serutan pensil, skrup, dan ring. Mudah, simple dan sangat bermanfaat.

Mata pisau yang digunakan bisa menggunakan pisau serutan pensil atau pisau isi cutter. Bisa juga menggunakan pisau dapur yang tajam. Bisa menggunakan barang-barang bekas. Yang paling penting adalah pisaunya harus tajam sekali. Gunakan ring yang seragam. Tinggi ring ini menentukan lebar tapi plastik yang akan dibuat. Semakin tinggi tumpukan ring akan semakin lebar tali plastiknya.

Tali plastik bisa dimanfaatkan untuk berbagai macam hal. Manfaat pertama tentunya sebagai tali pengikat. Tali ini bisa juga dikencangkan dengan menggunakan pemanas/pengering angin seperti hair dryer. Bisa juga dijadikan kerajinan tangan yang menarik. Silahkan berkreasi sendiri.

Silahkan dicoba.

Memanfaatkan Patent-Patent yang sudah Expired

Melanjutkan lagi posting saya sebelumnya tentang study patent. Kalau Anda cukup rajin dan teliti, Anda akan menemukan banyak sekali dokumen paten. Coba perhatikan status dari paten tersebut. Ada sebagian paten yang statusnya expired atau kadaluwarsa. Artinya paten ini sudah menjadi public domain atau milik umuk. Semua orang boleh dan bebas menggunakan dan memanfaatkan paten ini tanpa harus membayar royalti.

Nah. Ini tentunya sangat menarik sekali. Klaim di dalam dokumen paten tersebut biasanya tertulis sangat jelas. Kita bisa meniru dan mengikuti petujuk di dalam dokumen paten ini. Coba-coba saja sampai berhasil.

Masih ingat beberapa tahun yang lalu? Indonesia dibanjiri dengan motor-motor dari China dengan merek aneh2 tapi secara fisik bentuknya sangat mirip dengan motor2 terkenal dari Jepang. Persis banget, bahkan spare part dan onderdilnya pun identik dan bisa dipasang ke motor China itu. Anehnya, tidak ada komplain dari motor pabrikan Jepang.

Saya sempat baca ulasan di media otomotif, kenapa pabrikan Jepang itu tidak komplain? Apa mereka tidak melanggar HKI. Ternyata jawabannya adalah marena produk dan desain motor yg ‘dijiplak’ negeri China itu paten dan HKInya sudah kadaluwarsa. Siapa pun kalau bisa boleh memproduksi motor itu.

Motor China alias Mochin laris manis di Indonesia, karena harganya yang murah. Memang sih, kualitasnya masih di bawah motor Jepang. Motornya tidak awet. Onderdilnya cepat rusak. Sebentar-sebentar masuk bengkel.

Dalam konteks riset, penggunaan paten yang kadaluwaraa bisa memotong lamanya waktu riset. Kita tidak usah mulai dari nol. Mulai dari teknologi yang sudah teruji. Kita coba tiru, coba terus sampai berhasil. Lalu lakukan imrovement, pengembangan dan modifikasi. Kalau memungkinkan, coba telusuri paten-paten terbaru dari produk tersebut.

Selamat menelusuri lautan paten. Terus berkarya.

Preparation of the cellulose nitrate

This methods is part of the book:
Klemm, D., et al. “Comprehensive cellulose chemistry: v. 2: functionalization of cellulose: functionalization of cellulose.” (1998).

A sample of about 0.8 g cellulose is mixed with 40 ml of the nitration acid, and coole down to 0oC. This mixture is shaken vigorously and then kept for 3 h at 0oC with occasional shaking. Subsequently most of the nitration acid is separated from the cellulose on a coarse sintered-glass crucible by pressing with glass stopper. After putting the filter crucible onto a suction flask, the sample is neutralized stepwise by addition of a total volume of 240 ml of 2% by weight aqueous Na2CO3 solution, which is filtered through the crucible without suction. Subsequently the sample is washed with about 8 l of distilled water, again applying no suction. After these washing, most of the water covering the sample is drawn off by suction, and the cellulose nitrate is stabilized for 2 h at room temperature by covering it with methanol in a beaker. After separating the methanol by filtration, the sample is dried in vacuo over P2O5 at 20oC for at least 15h.

Determination of the carboxyl group content of cellulose samples by methylene blue sorption

This methods is part of the book:
Klemm, D., et al. “Comprehensive cellulose chemistry: v. 2: functionalization of cellulose: functionalization of cellulose.” (1998).

A weighed cellulose samples of known water content up to 0.5 g is suspended in 25 ml of aquaeus methylne blue chloride solution (300mg/l) and 25 ml of borate buffer of pH = 8.5 for 1 h at 20 oC in a 100 Erlenmeyer flask and then filtered through a sintered-glass disk. 5 or 10 ml of the filtrate are transferred to a 100 ml calibrated flask. Then 100 of 0.1 N HCl and subsequently water, up to 100 ml, are added. Then the methylene blue content of the liquid is determined photometrically, employing a calibration plot, and from the result the total amount of free, i.e. nonsorbed, methylene blue is calculated. The carboxyl group content of the sample is obtained according to:

rumus_carbonyl - 1

Reference:
Phillip, B., Rehder, W., Lang H. Papier 1965, 1-10

Determination of the carbonyl group content of cellulose samples by oximation

This methods is part of the book:
Klemm, D., et al. “Comprehensive cellulose chemistry: v. 2: functionalization of cellulose: functionalization of cellulose.” (1998).

2 g of an air dry sample of known moisture content is suspeded in 100ml 0f 0.02 N aquaeous zinc acetate solution in a 300 ml Erlenmeyer flask under vigorous stirring. After a residence of 2-6 h at room temperature in the covered flask the liquid is sucked off and the moist sample is immediately and quantitatively returned to the flask and subsequently suspended in 100 ml of the oximation reagen (35 g hydroxilamine hydrochoride, 55 g zink acetate, 160 ml 1 N NaOH and 1.6 ml glacial acetic acid/l aquaeous solution) appliying a gentle shaking. After a residence time of 20 h at 20oC, the liquid is again sucked off through the same sintered-glass disk and twice washed with water. Subsequently the sample is suspended again in the same flask in 100 of 0.02 N zinc acetate solution. After 2 h the liquid is again sucked off and the sample is washed with aqueous zinc acetate solution of the same concentration. The moist oximated sample is then immadiately subjected to a determination of the nitrogen content by Kjeldahl method, employing finally a calorimetric determination of the NH4+ formed with Nesslers reagent. I umol of nitrogen correspond to 1 umol of carbonyl groups in the sample.

Reference:
Laboratory procedure of Fraunhofer Institute of Applied Polymer Research.

Determination of the acetyl group DS of cellulose acetate

This methods is part of the book:
Klemm, D., et al. “Comprehensive cellulose chemistry: v. 2: functionalization of cellulose: functionalization of cellulose.” (1998).

0.5 g of dry cellulose acetate is swollen in 25 ml of an acetone/water mixture (1:1 by volume) for 24 h at room temperature. Then 12.5 ml of 1 N KOH in ethanol are added, and a complete deacetylation is formed by keeping this mixture for 24 h at room temperature. The excess of alkali is titrated with N/2 aqueous HCl using phenolpthalein as indicator, and an excess of 2 ml of N/2 HCl is added, which is back-titrated after 24 h with N/2 NaOH. From the titration result, the total amount of alkali consumed for saponification of the acetyl groups/g of sample is obtained. Calculation of ‘% of bound acetic acid’ and DSAcetyl is performed accoding to

rumus_acetyl - 1

Reference:
Procedure of the Fraunhofer Institute of Applied Polymer Research, Teltow-Seehof.